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monaco
Oceanographic Museum of Monaco is a museum of marine sciences, and was inaugurated in 1910 by Prince Albert 1. The Prince was very interested in oceanography and made several cruises in the Mediterranean Sea but also to e.g. the Azores and Svalbard. The museum is built on a steep cliff, and just the architecture is worth a trip to the Principality of Monaco, the second-smallest country in the world. The famous Jacques-Yves Cousteau, also a diving pioneer, was a curator at the museum for many years.

posterround2jellyb

These rare, huge gelatinous spheres have been recorded from the North East Atlantic Ocean, and are attributed to squid egg mass. They are about 1 meter in diameter, and many of them have a dark streak through the center. We are investigating these spheres, and have received around 50 observations, mostly from divers. The first observation is from Croatia in 1999. The first observation from the Norwegian coast is from 2001.

So far we can only speculate which species make them. One suggestion is Todarodes sagittatus (Lamarck, 1798), but without a tissue sample for DNA analysis, we can not conclude.

If you see such a sphere in the ocean, we would very much like a tissue sample. Could you please cut out a small tissue sample of the sphere wall, put it in a clean plastic bag in the freezer - before contacting us! Also, if you are able to take a picture or video of the sphere, that would be great! If you can provide us with an OK tissue sample, and we find the right species, you will be invited to join in on a scientific article!
montsthigh montstmisheep
montstmichlowmontstmidark
Many people are used to high and low tide twice daily, but that is not the case everywhere on the planet. Mont-Saint-Michel is an Island situated in a large bay in Normandy in France, and the Island with its monastry, picturesque from every possible angle (!), is one of the most visited tourist attractions in France. The large Mont-Saint-Michel Bay is part of the the English Channel, known for strong tidal currents, and the castle lies at the innermost part of the bay. Here, the tide only comes in every second week (at spring tides, not neap tides), and is then visible from the castle! This is not all, because since the Island is surrounded by mud flats, the tidal currents, or high tides, are only strong enough to surround the whole Island about 10 days a year! The phenomenon is called "Les Grandes Marées". It creates a tidal bore which is even more visible as it enters the long, narrow inlet at the mouth of the river close to the monastry.
Legend has it that the tide comes in "as fast as galloping horses", but that is an overstatement. The tide comes in quite fast, but not that fast. Walks around the castle at low tide is possible, BUT always walk with a certified guide. There is both quicksand and tidal currents to look out for!     
   Mudflats and salt marshes, also the once of Mont-Saint-Michel Bay, play an important nursery role for many fish species, and at least 100 fish species are known in these intertidal areas. They bay also hosts many birds and seals (Photo credit: HR/ Sea Snack Norway.)





You may have found bristle worms crawling around on the sea floor (børstemark in Norwegian, and polychaetes in Latin), but some species also swim. This is Tomopteris sp., and is about 4,5 cm long with long antennae. It spends it's entire life as plankton, free swimming in the water mass. It can swim very fast, both forwards and backwards. If disturbed, it may play dead for a while, hoping the predator or danger will go away. Tomopteris is know for bioluminescens, which means that it can make it's own light to e.g. scare predatores. Tomopteris emits blue light, but e.g. T. helgolandica also emits yellow light which is more rare in the ocean. (Photo credit: HR/ Sea Snack Norway.)

tomopt

poster hydrozoa

The Cnidaria phylum contains all the jelly like organisms, of which many that stings. There are several classes, and one of them is represented here - Hydrozoa ("småmaneter" in Norwegian):

    The two upper pictures show two common hydrozoans in Norwegian waters: upper left, Sarsia tubulosa described by M. Sars in 1835 and Tima bairdii (Johnston, 1833). Notice the small crustacean, or amphipod, attached to the umbrella. It is a parasitic hyperiid.
    The two lower species are also hydrozoans, but belong to a special group or order, the siphonophores. Siphonophores may look like one animal, but is in fact a colony of small individual animals, each with special tasks such as attack or defence.
They pray upon e.g. small crustaceans, fish and larvae. The most famous siphonophore is perhaps the Blue bottle, or Portuguese man-of-war. The siphonophores moves quite quickly through the water mass, and may be difficult to photograph. Two common species for Norwegian waters are: lower left, the long "thread", cf. Nanomia cara described by Agassiz in 1865 and (right) cf. Physophora hydrostatica described by Forsskål in 1775. (Photo credit: HR/ Sea Snack Norway.)


eggmassoctop
This is squid eggs (In Norwegian: blekksprutegg), washed ashore after a storm in France. They look
like eggs from a 10-armed species, and might be from
Loligo vulgaris. L. vulgaris spend the winter
months in deep waters outside Portugal, swims past France to the North Sea in the spring/ summer - and back again.
  
oktoskalll
These are all cuttlebones (In Norwegian: blekksprutskall), the internal shell of 10-armed cuttlefish. When washed ashore they are collected and actually used in caged birds giving extra nutrition (calcium) and possibilities for smoothening down their growing beak. (Photo credit: HR/ Sea Snack Norway.)

foambay
Have you ever encountered loads of foam at the beach? These pictures show the same bay, only a few weeks apart
(in the middle of the day, and at sunset). Salt water contains dissolved salts, proteins and fat. If you add dead algae
and strong wind and waves, thick foam usually forms ashore. Sea 
foam is usually harmless, and only indicates a
productive ocean ecosystem. However, occations with unpleasent outcome have been reported. Large amounts
of dead sea birds were found in California, and soap-like foam on their feathers from decaying algae made it difficult
for them to fly, also causing hypothermia and death. If the foam contains certain decaying toxic algae, the foam may
cause skin irritations and respiratory discomfort to humans. (Photo credit: HR/ Sea Snack Norway.)

seaahare2
Sea hare (In Norwegian: sjøhare), Aplysia punctata.
Color of sea hares may vary depending on what type of food/ algae they eat.
(Photo: HR/ Sea Snack Norway). 

seahare1
Sea hare, Aplysia punctata. They usually occur single but large amounts may be observed when mating. This species also occurs in Norwegian waters.
(Photo: HR/ Sea Snack Norway).


aplysia
Sea hares (In Norwegian: sjøhare) are funny looking creatures, and in frontal view this dead specimen may look like a tiny hippopotamus. It belongs within the Mollusca phylum. This is Aplysia depilans, a specimen collected at a beach in France. It is common in French waters, but has not been recorded from Norway. (Photo: HR/ Sea Snack Norway.)
vadeh
Visiting a National Park like the Wadden sea (In Norwegian: vadehavet) requires caution and respect for nature. The Wadden sea
reaches from southern Denmark, via Germany, to the Netherlands.
Join a guided tour and learn more about this fascinating flat,
muddy, but animal rich area! (Photos: HR/ Sea Snack Norway.)
In a National Park - "Take nothing but pictures. Leave nothing
but footprints. Kill nothing but time". A motto of the Baltimore Grotto.


hapter
Have you ever seen such "spiky balls" in the ocean (two left pictures)? These "balls" are holdfasts (In Norw.: festeorganet)
to furbelows, a brown algae. In Norwegian the kelp is called "draugtare". Legend has it that "draugen" are whicked ghosts of
dead fishermen who died at sea, doomed to haunt waves. 
Furbelows is not too common in Norway, and likes it rough, at wave
exposed coasts. For other species (right picture) the kelp holdfast may 
give good shelter for all kinds of small creatures, and is
a good place to look for animals! (Photos: HR/ Sea Snack Norway.)


hvalknokler
Diving gives you unique opportunitites in discovering interesting phenomena below the water surface.
Here are some huge whale knockles from SW Norway, Bergen, possibly seen by humans for the first time.
(Photos: HR/ Sea Snack Norway.)



henricia spines
Have you ever studied a starfish (In Norwegian: sjøstjerne) under the microscope? Try it, and you'll discover some fascinating structures. Here are three different shaped spines from three species. The spines are very small and fragile, all measuring under 0,5 mm in length. (Photo: HR/ Sea Snack Norway). 

  tangkvabbe
This fish is called Shanny, or Blenny (In Norwegian: tangkvabbe). In latin it is called Lipophrys pholis, and was named by Carl von Linné in 1758.  This species is found in shallow waters of rocky coasts, and may also remain out of water, breathing air. One of it's favourite food is barnacles. After spawning in the spring, the male may guard eggs from several females. They are not too long, but may reach around 20 cm in length. This species is actually on the Red List (list of threatened species) due to it's homebound behaviour. Also, due to it's inability to move away, it can be used as an indicator species for pollution monitoring. This specimen was found at Sotra/ Bergen, on the SW coast of Norway. (Photo: HR/ Sea Snack Norway.)

mite1
About 1000 species of sea mites (In Norwegian: sjømidd) have been described worldwide. They are also called Halacaridae in latin, and are very small creatures. We're talking about less than 0,5 mm long (!). They are so small that on a head of a pin you may place 15-20 mites! Look at the claws which are "hook-shaped". Some feed on algae, others are predators or parasites. (Photo: HR/ Sea Snack Norway.)

mite2
This is a mite you also may encounter in the ocean, in the littoral zone, were it is build for clinging to rocks and algae even if rough weather. Look at the claws. It belongs to a group called Hyadesia. About 40 species of Hyadesia and Amhyadesia have been described worldwide. (Photo: HR/ Sea Snack Norway.) 
horngjel_delb Photo shoot of a juvenile garfish (6,5 cm long).
horngjelclose
Have you ever seen a juvenile garfish (in Norw.: horngjel)? I don't think too many people have! As you can see on the closeup picture, the upper beak (or jaw) is still much shorter than the lower beak but it will grow longer as the fish matures. Adults can be seen in large schools in the open ocean but move into shallow water during springtime, when spawning.  (Photos: HR/ Sea Snack Norway.)
horngjeljuvwhole
This live specimen was only 6,5 cm long, but adults become about 1 m long.
 
In latin they are called Belone belone, described by Linnaeus in 1761.
In several countries it is a popular seafood with green bones.
   

This may look like a plant, but it is a sponge (In Norw.: svamp) - the simplest of multi-celled animals. It can filtrate seawater for algae, bacteria, and even small crustaceans. All sponges may be placed in only four classes, of which mostly saltwater species. Most sponges are actually both females and males. Sponges are found to accumulate specific metals, so they might become promising biomonitors of metal contamination. Metals may be hazardous to humans since they are accumulated in aquatic animals, transported through the food web, and posing a risk to us through sea food consumption.

Identifying sponges is difficult. The sponge on the picture is probably
Polymastia boletiformis, which was described by Lamarck in 1815. (Photo: HR/ Sea Snack Norway.).



sponge

varyngel

A juvenile flatfish (In Norw.: en juvenil flatfisk fra "varfamilien") caught at the surface in June. It is only 25 mm long, and around that time they settle on the bottom. Both eyes are tilted to the left side, and this could possibly be a juvenile of turbot, brill or topknot  (piggvar, slettvar eller hårvar). (Photo: HR/ Sea Snack Norway.). 

ctenophora_five
Common Ctenophora from Norwegian waters (In Norw.: ribbemaneter).  (From left to right) Pleurobrachia pileus,
cf. Beroe cucumis, Beroe gracilis, Bolinopsis infundibulum, and Mnemiopsis leidyi. The ctenophore
Mnemiopsis leidyi
is invasive to Norwegian waters, and was discovered here for the first time in 2005.
It is a zooplankton predator, and can eat as much as it's own weight 15 times each day. The ctenophors are
not easy to photograph. They are fragile, look like a "sack of water", and move all the time. (Photos: HR/ Sea Snack Norway.)


rognk
Lumpsuckers (in Norw. rognkjeks) enter shallow waters in late winter/ spring to spawn. The males watches the eggs for 6-10 weeks before hatching. Usually the females spawn subtidally but sometimes just above low water spring tide level. Males then have to spout water from their mouth over egg masses exposed to air by low tides!   
rognkjuv
A juvenile lumpsucker from shallow waters (approx. 1,5 cm long). Not too much is known about lumpsucker biology but when reaching about 1 year they appear to be moving into deeper water. (Photos: HR/ Sea Snack Norway.) 




monkfish3 
The biology of the monkfish (in Norw. breiflabb) is not too well known. During summer it can be found in shallow waters,
but during wintertime and when spawning, it can be found below 2000 m depth. Picture 1 (left) shows the sharp teeth of a
juvenile monkfish (20 cm long), 2) the otholites, and 3) a specimen hunting for food with it's own fishing rod on it's head
(one of the dorsal fins).  In latin, monkfish are called
Lophius piscatorius after Carl von Linné who described and named
the fish in 1758. (Photos: HR/ Sea Snack Norway).


helsinki
The Aquarium "Sea Life" in Helsinki is great fun showing many kinds of living sea animals.
On the wall you may also encounter the extinct "Helicoprion", a shark-like fish with a "tooth-whirl" in the lower jaw. It looks a bit like a circular saw. Helicoprion lived around 280 million years ago. (Photos: HR/ Sea Snack Norway.)



australia
Australian Great Barrier Reef animals (left to right): sea feather, turtle, sea cucumber
(Thelenota ananas Jaeger, 1883) and brain coral. (Photos: HR/ Sea Snack Norway.)
pectenmax
A boiled great scallop (Pecten maximus (Linnaeus, 1758))
(In Norw.: kamskjell) shows the eatable parts which are the muscle

and the gonad.
The male part of the gonad is white, and the female orange.
(Photo: HR/ Sea Snack Norway).

pyntekrabbe
A spider crab (Hyas sp.) (in Norw.: pyntekrabbe) is using
algae as camouflage. Some of these species are thought
to have antibiotic properties. (Photo: HR/ Sea Snack Norway.)
spokelsesruse
Ghost fishing (In Norw.: spøkelsesfiske). Fishing gear that
is lost or abandoned are killing thousands of fish each year.
Surveys and clean-up programmes should be undertaken
in order to establish how widespread this problem really is! (Photo: HR/
Sea Snack Norway.)

adamsia
The hermit crab (In Norw.: eremittkreps) Pagurus prideuax was
described by Leach in 1815. It is living in symbiosis with the sea anemone
Adamsia palliata (Fabricius, 1779), and carries it on it's back. The sea anemone (which is the "dotted layer" on the crab's shell) feeds on leftovers from the crab,
and the crab is protected from other animals by the anemones sticky tentackles. (Photo: HR/ Sea Snack Norway.)
denfronnak
The bush-shaped nudibranch, Dendronotus frondosus (Ascanius, 1774)
photographed in the Bergen area (In Norw.: busksnegl, en type 
nakensnegl). It can reach a size up to about 10 cm in length. (Photo:
HR/ Sea Snack Norway.)

onchimur
Another, but smaller nudibranch species (Onchidoris sp.), reaches only about 2 cm in length. (Photo: HR/ Sea Snack Norway.)
dodnhand
Dead man's fingers... It's a soft coral called Alcyonium
digitatum
and was described by Linnaeus in 1758.
(In Norwegian: dødningehånd, en bløtkorall.) 
crabcp
Edible crab (Cancer pagurus Linnaeus, 1758) (in
Norw.: taskekrabbe) "hiding" in the sand.

tangtare
Seaweed, including kelp, from Norway (from left to right): oarweed, thongweed, Devil's apron, and green ribbon/ green nori
Tang og tare fra norskekysten (fra venstre til høyre): fingertare, remtang, sukkertare og tarmgrønske.
Latin (from left to right): Laminaria digitata, Himanthalia elongata, Laminaria saccharina, and Enteromorpha sp.

dykking_sjopung
Huge amounts of sea squirts (Ciona intestinalis) (In Norw.:
sjøpung) is common several places along the Norwegian
coast. Research now looks into farming possibilities. 
arubens_sjopung
The starfish Asterias rubens eats "almost anything", and here it's on top of a sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis).
havraa
The Havrå farm (Havråtunet) at Osterøy (near Bergen), a heritage site,
listed in litterature as far back as year 1303. Archaeological discoveries 
also indicates settlement as far back as the Stone Age.

 
octopusrock
oselver
Norwegian Masters (NM) in sailing was arranged in Bergen in August 2015. The boat type, "Oselver, spritsail", resembles old boats constructed in year 300, and has been typical in the South-Western Norway for several hundred years. The boats are between 5-10 m long, and are built of pine- or oak trees. 
skrubb1
European flounder (In Norw.: skrubbe) (Platichthys flesus Linnaeus, 1758) 
was observed during diving at just a few meters depth.
lciliaris
The starfish Luidia ciliaris (Philippi, 1837) observed in the Bergen area. In Norwegian it's called the "seven-armed starfish".

Species (from top left to right): 
Amphilochus manudens Bate, 1862, Boroecia borealis (Sars, 1866), Laetmatophilus tuberculatus Bruzelius, 1859, Doridoxa ingolfiana Bergh, 1899, Platysympus typicus (Sars, 1870), Gastropoda juv indet, Themisto sp., Tole laciniata (Sars, 1872).


trecolore
ctencri Starfish which usually have five arms can sometimes be deformed; Ctenodiscus crispatus (Retzius, 1805) from Iceland (Bioice-material). For additional image please click on image.



kayaknaeroyfj
Kayak trip on the Nærøyfjord, Gudvangen, Norway.

Water. The element that won’t be denied.
Sweeping majestically across two thirds of our world.
Studding the surface in a swirling pattern of lakes, rivers, seas, and oceans.
Deeply moving and mysterious.
A vast fluid theatre challenging the adventurer within us.
It’s yours to accept. Don’t disappoint it.
Give it your respect and enjoy the experience.
See you out there !
-          By Dan Trotter




nucellapp_adult
Common Dog Whelk,
Nucella lapillus (Linnaeus, 1758),

in the littoral zone
(in Norwegian: purpursnegl).
nuclapp_eggs
Eggs from Nucella lapillus.
nudinuclapp_eggs
Egg spiral by a nudibranch (possibly
Onchidoris bilammelata (Linnaeus, 1767)).
naalefisk
Seaweed pipefish (Syngnathus sp.) (In Norwegian: nålefisk) in the littoral zone, observed while catching small Crustacea.
kjerag
A trip to the Lysebotn fjord and "Kjeragbolten", a boulder (glacial deposit) suspended above a 1000 m abyss.
         
For more pictures from Norway ( Norge, Norwegen, Noorwegen, Norvège,  Noruega, 挪威 ) please visit www.visitnorway.com.
2019 Copyright © H. Ringvold/ Sea Snack Norway. All rights reserved.